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¿Qué derechos tengo como cliente bancario?

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¿Qué derechos tengo como cliente bancario?

Por: Mariela A. Moncada (Abogada – Mediadora)

Apoderada en Córdoba Capital de la Asoc. Protectora de Defensa del Consumidor.

El día 15 de marzo se celebra a nivel mundial, el Día Internacional de los Derechos de los Consumidores, y para celebrarlo, nada mejor que hacerlo con consejos sobre nuestros derechos. En esta oportunidad quiero que analicemos brevemente que derechos tenemos como clientes bancarios.

En un mundo que busca día a día que todo se bancarice, es muy importante que sepamos cuales son nuestros derechos, para que los podamos defender y ejercer correctamente.

Desde agosto de 2015 tenemos en Argentina, una nueva legislación, el Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación (CCC) en la que se incorporó un nuevo tipo de contrato, el contrato bancario, allí, en el art. 1388, se establece lo siguiente:

ARTÍCULO 1388.- Contenido: “Sin perjuicio de las condiciones establecidas para los contratos bancarios en general, ninguna suma puede ser exigida al consumidor si no se encuentra expresamente prevista en el contrato. En ningún caso pueden cargarse comisiones o costos por servicios no prestados efectivamente. Las cláusulas relativas a costos a cargo del consumidor que no están incluidas o que están incluidas incorrectamente en el costo financiero total publicitado o incorporado al documento contractual, se tienen por no escritas…”.

Desde el momento que nosotros decidimos, por ejemplo, abrir una “caja de ahorro”, una “cuenta corriente” o solicitar una “tarjeta de crédito” en un banco, firmamos entre ellos y nosotros un contrato, este tiene la particularidad de que no es convenido ni consensuado entre las partes, sino, que es un contrato “tipo” o contrato “formulario” (como se lo suele denominar) en donde el banco fija las condiciones y nosotros solo aceptamos. Por ello, la legislación establece que todo lo que no figure en ese contrato, se tiene por NO CONVENIDO, porque no fue aceptado por el consumidor.

Esta norma está destinada a evitar que los errores o abusos operativos en los que pueden incurrir las entidades financieras perjudiquen al consumidor, para lo que se establece que toda disposición por la que se cobren sumas no convenidas y previamente aceptadas por el consumidor, cualquiera sea el concepto, se le aplique el tratamiento propio de las cláusula abusivas (art. 37 ley 24240), es decir, teniéndola por no escritas.

Lo que se tiene que dejar bien en claro, es que el banco no podrá exigirme nada que no esté previsto en el contrato. Y otra cosa muy importante es que puede haber estipulaciones que se hayan pactado en el contrato, pero el banco no podrá cobrarlas, si no demuestra que ha prestado efectivamente ese servicio al cliente. Vamos a dar un ejemplo para que nos quede mas claro el concepto: a muchos consumidores les ha llegado alguna vez a su domicilio una tarjeta de crédito, que ellos no han solicitado, a los pocos meses de haberla recibido ( y en muchas ocasiones, estando el sobre aun sin abrir, es decir, tarjetas de créditos no solicitadas ni utilizadas) el banco nos envía una comunicación donde nos informa que estamos en “mora” por los gastos administrativos que esa tarjeta de crédito generó.

Este es un claro ejemplo de un abuso de la posición dominante de los bancos, abuso por enviarme un producto que no solicite (no firme contrato por ello, no manifesté mi voluntad de adquirir esa tarjeta) y además por pretender cobrarme un cargo por un servicio que el banco que no presto.

Resumiendo brevemente los derechos que me asisten como cliente bancario, son los siguientes:

  • Derecho a la información clara, detallada, veraz y gratuita… toda la información que yo necesite que el banco me brinde, debe ser gratuita (art. 4 Ley 24240).
  • Tengo derecho a que el contrato que voy a suscribir con el banco me sea entregado en formato de papel (o por mail…) previamente a la suscripción del mismo, para que yo lo pueda analizar detenidamente y poder sacarme todas las dudas, antes de firmarlo (art. 38 ley 24240).
  • A que se respete el contrato que firme, en todos sus términos (art 19 ley 24240).
  • Que toda notificación sobre los cambios en las condiciones de contratación me sean informados con una antelación mínima de 60 días antes… (Resolución 9/2004 secretaria de coordinación y Técnica anexo 3).
  • Información Periódica, el banco debe comunicar en forma clara, escrita o por medios electrónicos (que previamente el cliente haya solicitado y aceptado), al menos una vez al año, un resumen de los movimientos de las cuentas del consumidor (art. 1382 ccc).
  • Registro de reclamos. El banco tiene la obligación de atender mis reclamos, en forma personal y/o telefónicamente, brindándome una constancia del reclamo, y dándome respuesta al mismo (Comunicación “A” 5388 BCRA).
  • A brindarme un TRATO DIGNO, no me brinda trato digno cuando me tiene parado haciendo cola para atenderme, por más de 30 minutos… tampoco me brinda trato digno cuando no coloca dinero en los cajeros automáticos… etc. (art 8 bis ley 24240).
  • A abrirme una caja de ahorro gratuita, con una tarjeta de débito vinculada ambas gratuitas en su apertura y mantenimiento. Este servicio se puede solicitar en cualquier banco del país, y sólo se otorga una sola caja de ahorro por persona (si ya tiene una caja de ahorro, no podrá solicitar este servicio nuevamente).

 

Recuerden que estos derechos quedan como “letra muerta” en un papel, si no los ejercemos.

Si tienen  dudas sobre el proceder del banco, o sobre sus derechos, acérquense a las oficinas de Defensa del Consumidor más cercanas a su domicilio, o a las Asociaciones de Consumidores, o al Banco Central de la República Argentina.

 

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